CAIRN MediaCasting Updates Draft-only : July 25, 2007
Welcome to the Cairn Doctorate School  Concept...
! This draft is presently completed with Prof. Fr. Houtart (CETRI), Prof. Ian CLEGG (CDS), Dr. Julie Switaj and other experts !



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Cairn   Consortium     |    Professional  Doctorate  School   



Comparative  Research  in  Himalayan  &  Keltic  Arts&Humanities   


Cultural Immersion Tibetan Medicine Materia Medica Tibetan Applied Psychology Diplomatic Hermeneutic Tsa-rLung Coaching Verdon Keltic Powerplaces Nepal / Tibet Tours&Study



Fr. Robins SJ





Namgyal Rimpoche

John&Julie Heart@Wk

Fr. B Robins SJ  (St- Xavier's)

Mike Singleton (UCL)

H. Middleton-Jones































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































William  R. Leon 
Cairn  Webmaster©2001-06





Welcome to CAIRN Professional Doctorate

Cairn  Strategic  Hermeneutic  Coaching

Applied  Psychology in Diplomatic  &  Communication  Hermeutic  Skills

" inclusive of  Applied  Psycho-energotherapy  &  Philosophy  Options "


South Asian Himalayan Conflict Resolution Prospective (CAIRN)



The  CAIRN  Applied  Psychology  to  HRD,  Diplomatic  &  Communication Skills " Postgraduate Certificate Options (CAIRN Consortium includes the CETRI, UCL/LAAP, SXSSC/SXC, ISI-CNV and other selected partners in UK, EU, USA, Nepal)  is based upon a synthesis of previously organized postgraduate options in HRD, Applied Psycho-energotherapy (Tsa-rLung), Education Counselling, Drug Rehabilitation Counselling, Crisis Prevention, Tibetan Medicine Psychology and other curricula focusing upon Organization Management and Humanitarian Assistance. (Cairn Consortium)


The ongoing peace initiatives in Nepal, have led us to seek for a very practical synthesis within the traditionally non-violent Dharma philosophy, inclusive of a comparative study of the European/Keltic and Nepal/Tibetan Traditions, as they may be found in their respective Shamanic practices, Archetypal Divination and Embodiment Rituals, Traditional Healing and other Geopolitical Hermeneutic tools, being used nowadays in the Himalayan equation and which could be translated into some Applied Psychology Training for more relevant Diplomacy and Communication Skills of concerned actors in International Affairs and Himalayan region future Crisis Management...

The CAIRN Professional Doctorate and its related Postgraduate Certificate Options, are based on a personalized project. which includes professional experience (past and present), cultural immersion, e-Learning Mixed Mode and Continuing Education Coaching designed to encourage both experiential learning in selected target-site, as well as more conventional academic further studies focused either on Personal or Organizational Development Skills (HRD). CAIRN programme credibility is inherited from CAIRN EU/UK experts partnerships, experienced social/health development practitioners, researchers and local NGOs community to be involved in the envisioned venue. (CAIRN Postgraduate & Prof. Doctorate Options!)




Strategic Studies & Consultations

Upcoming Events

CAIRN Consortium will be piloting a strategic studies initiative, during the period November-December 2008, which will be focusing on the prospects of S-Asian/Nepal geopolitics and development, this at the time of the new Nepalese republic constitution drafting and related the CPN equation in the participation (or not) of the new government transition period.

This review will envision Himalayan current affairs and risks in terms of a fragmentation of the previous Nepal nation-state into various competing ethnic/religious/cultural groups, as being one of the most obvious future scenario. inclusive of the consequences this may entail in terms of conflict prevention, negotiation skills and prospective (post-)development policies.

Entitled: CAIRN/CETRI ' Applied Psychology to HRD, Diplomatic & Media Communication Skills Curriculum Development ', this programme will focus upon sharing strategic data and upon a draft curriculum development exercise. This will involve the need for the Nepalese partners to present a written (10 pages min.) NEEDS ANALYSIS document, including their framework, methodology, infrastructure in target-areas, target groups, and their views on the potential agenda for Capacity Building (HRD) within Himalayan region development strategy analysis.

The Nepalese participants will present a study of the CPN new Government development policy (manisfesto), while CAIRN will review the homework done upon of the various KTM- based donors and INGOs strategic papers (EC-, DFID...), as well as the required development curriculum methodology (in terms of EC- jargon & framework), e-learning systems, media and negotiation role-play situations and talks/lectures by selected representatives with the international credibility level required.

The issue of Cross-cultural Hermeneutics Tools awareness to be approach within current S-Asian/Tibet/Himalayan diplomatic study review, will be examined in terms of a comparative study of the diplomatic and negotiations tools, as well as support for decision-making process (KABP).

This will emphasize, as being one important issue to grasp, what is the nature of the currently experienced dichotomy between Tibetan diplomatic vision, discourses and tools (conflicting strata), that of the Nepal CPM Maoists and the so-called Western conventional diplomatic discourse, including the current use (misuse) of the Human Rights ' Free Tibet ' issues, by INGOs, for political influence in the Himalayan region.

The curriculum development exercise will accordingly examine the different ontologies/paradigms, as being utilised by these competing economic and philosophic ideological hemisphere.

Our methodology approach will be to create the framework for cross-learning between these competing ideological paradigms, when envisioned within the prospective of diplomacy and communication dealing with the strategic development of the Himalayan region. This approach will include vital experiential learning components, in situ, as the methodology employed.

Among the experts who initiated and granted relevance to this initiative are: Prof. Mike Singleton (UCL/POLS/ANSO/LAAP), Prof. Francois Houtart (UCL CETRI), Prof. Ian Clegg (UWS/CDS Center for Development Studies DFID UK), Dr. Marco Paret, Fr. William B. Robins SJ (ST- Xavier's KTM NP), Dr. B. Raven Lee (USA), Dr. Julie Switaj (Canada) and other EU, UK, Tibetan and/or Nepalese academic and NGOs representatives involved in the fields of Psychology, Healing, Development Studies and Diplomatic cum Media Communication Seminars training. 

For the purpose of practical demonstration of the hermeneutic Diplomatic Skills, as they are currently employed day-by-day by the Tibetan political diaspora decision makers, we hope to include the participation of concerned practitioners and related experts from USA, UK and Nepal, who will propose some experiential practices cum synthesis.



Flexible Agenda

Starting with their arrival in BRU around November 20, 2008 (or -if postponed?- the next suitable period being May-June 2009) the members of the envisioned Nepalese CPN Representation will first meet with Prof. Houtart (CETRI) and Prof. Singleton (LAAP), in order to review the related priorities, agenda and methodology during the first week of arrival.

After this introduction, they will be joined by the invited EU, UK and France experts, who will arrive at a chosen location for a one week duration Round Table meetings, aiming towards the development of an agreed Draft- Curriculum in Diplomatic and Communication Skills for submission to the EC- or DFID...

After the evaluation of this first initiative, it is proposed that some of  the concerned UK and EU experts (a group of 5 pax)may be invited by the CPN for the necessary field study, detailed consultations wit the EC- Representation and DFID in KTM Np, all of it leading to the very detailed policy review and technical capacity building assessment required by the EC- format. The experts will need to be more familiarized with the complexity of Nepal current situation, and therefore it is hoped that the CPN, academe and NGOs will to provide the necessary recommendation letters and data applying to the Beneficiaries own credibility (sometimes in early 2009).

The EU/UK participants will complete a minimum of a two week survey. This will include carrying out needs analyses using participatory methods (PRA) rather than more conventional forms of research. Cairn believes that development policy needs to based on this type of evidence. It will also involve, of course, linkages with a number of international organizations, including the EC- European Commission Representation KTM Np, EU Embassies, DFID, SXC/SXSSC,  CPN, the Human Rights Commission, the U.N, NGOs related to E.U. Programmes, as well as selected new Government services (if any) having a proven track in peace process and best practice in conflict resolution.

CAIRN policy recognizes the need to ensure that academic research makes a difference to the lives of people on the ground in conflict-affected countries, namely to conduct stepwise ethnographic bottom up needs diagnosis, taking into account obsolete development practices, current crisis inducers and misrepresentations affecting a vital number of core issues, which affect policymakers and practitioners seeking to promote more evidence-based approaches to peace-building and conflict resolution internationally.

One of the major concerns in terms of Prospective Regional and International Strategic Geopolitical issues are the ongoing propaganda and foreign sponsored influences, which may tend to use Human Rights issues and other related ethnic groups autonomy claims, for nurturing a major fault in Nepal as a nation state, and accordingly lead to the unprecedented threat to the national unity and sovereignty of Nepal, thus breaking the country in two or three major fractures.

The most fearful question at this time, and which upon this initiative will focus as its rationale is: Is this the beginning of the end disintegration of Nepal?



Training & Development

All the invited expert participants, gathered for the present initiative in 'Diplomatic & Media Communication Skills Curriculum Development', have a proven record of international excellence in the field of training in development studies, e-learning system and/or international relations. The programme tailor made EU- foreign policy reviews will be conducted by some EU professionals and will be fully adjusted to the needs diagnosis and  testimony provided by the Nepalese group. They will help to translate such a needs diagnosis and remedials envisioned,  into some EC- jargon compatible methodological layout on the main issues, thus aiming at relevance for future training project submission in foreign policy-making and professional diplomatic training.



Curriculum Development


Curriculum Potential Courses Outline

The development of this programme considers that it may be presented at a later stage within three different frameworks:

  • Foundation Programme outlines for Seminars in EU/UK,
  • Cultural Immersion options for EU trainees in Nepal/Asia,
  • Postgraduate and Professional Thesis ECDL Options,

At this stage of consultations, there are (generally speaking) far too many modules listed hereunder. It is the view of the Board that such long list will be neatly reduced, during the envisioned ' Table Ronde ' on Curriculum Development, to a selected smaller number of inputs, which we can be delivered and talked about convincingly... The present list hereunder can only be used as an example of the type of curriculum we could put together but which would need to be firmed up in conversations with the ‘client’, in this case with the Nepalese invited NGOs, Nepal govt and/or CPN Maoists representatives



Foundation Courses & Seminars

Main aspects of present day globalization  - Fr. Houtart Major Theories & Strategies of Development - Ian Clegg Curriculum  Development Philosophy - RWL
Presentation of UCL CETRI and LAAP development activities - Fr. Houtart & Mike Singleton Economic & Social Development  - Ian Clegg European Commission EC-, Strategic Papers on Nepal - RWL
European Commission  ( to be choosen) Negotiation & Communication Skills - Dr. Marco Paret European Commission Diplomatic Practices - R/EC
Situation in Europe ( to be choosen) European Commission Diplomatic Skills - R/EC Hermeneutics & Consciousness Studies  - Dr. B. Raven Lee - USA
Current Situation Latin America - Fr. Houtart & Guy Bajoit


Social Development Theory & Applications - Ian Clegg


Hermeneutics & Shamanic Studies - Dr. Juliana Switaj - Canada

Past, present & prospective development in Africa - Mike Singleton Governance & Development Policy - Ian Clegg Himalayan Region Geopolitical Equation - RWL
The Arab world - B. Khader Human Rights & Global Justice - Ian Clegg Hermeneutic Diplomatic Tools - - RWL
Globalization  of  resistances - F. Polet & Fr. Houtart - Cetri Development Management Skills - Ian Clegg Data Gathering & Analysis Skills  (to be choosen)
Development Practices & Anthropology - M. Singleton  e-Learning pedagogy & System Development Management Skills - HMJ HRD Management Skills - RWL




In the development of the programme, CAIRN will follow specific guidelines:

  • The programme will give a broader understanding of the background of current Nepal international dilemmas;
  • Community needs-diagnosis and donors strategic papers policies are to be tentatively related to methodology;
  • Knowledge building is combined with international diplomatic convential skills training on one side, as well as with Hermeneutic & Consciousness Cultural Immersion experiential and studies in target-sites, on the other;
  • Courses focus on HRD TOT personal development skills;
  • The Diplomatic and Communication Skills will address the issue of more awareness in the required Diplomatic & Communication Hermeneutic tools when applying these tools in the Nepal/Tibetan/Himalayan current crisis and Humanitarian Intervention context...

These rationale for the curriculum options & courses may include:

1: Locating the 'Structural Causes’ of the Maoist Struggle,
2: Proximate Causes and Development of Conflict in Nepal, including known historical and current external influences,
3: Role of the Media in Nepal and International Public Opinion,
4: Review of the history of Development Cooperation and Conflict, including the role of INGOs/NGOs in Remediation,
5: Current Peace Process and new Government negotiation,
6: The use of Traditional Hermeneutic Tools as monitored in specific areas of International Media management, intelligence analysis, donors lobbying and negotiation skills in Nepal,
7: Transmutation Vision of Democracy, Peace and Prosperity.



Potential Inputs


Major Theories & Development Strategies (Prof. Ian Clegg)

This module aims to provide an overview of the major theories and strategies of development since the end of the 2nd World war in order to provide a general context for the specific areas of development policy and practice addressed in the rest of the programme. Prof. Ian Clegg believes it is quite important to provide the CPN Maoists with the means to understand the theoretical context of non-marxist approaches to development which underlie most donor agency discourse and practice. What is important is to find a way of making such necessary inputs appeared not too heavy... 

Key themes here will be an analysis of the changing international architecture of aid, especially the nature of the different institutions involved. Changes include the scaling up of donor (multi and bi-lateral) activities from discrete programmes and projects to sector wide approaches (SWAPs), often based on PRSPs (Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers). INGOs and large national NGOs are also scaling up from community based development to more complex interventions or campaigning and advocacy.

Development is becoming a more complex process with many stakeholders involved – multilaterals, governments, private sector, civil society organizations. 

The module seeks to explore how development policy and interventions are imbedded in the wider political process and reflect the power and position of  stakeholders.

Maybe as a subset of this or a separate module loosely called Civil Society and Development something on the contemporary development discourse about the need for a strong and vibrant civil society.  This is generally seen as a core principle of contemporary development theory/policy but is understood in very different ways and has often been used by some donors to undermine national governments.

Prof. Ian Clegg here thinks again it is an area of development discourse the Maoists needs to understand and deal with.

Key contents would include something on the history of NGOs, different conceptions of civil society and some comparative studies from different regions. (Prof. Ian Clegg, Jul 25, 2008)




Economic & Social Development  (Prof. Ian Clegg):

To be organized as a complement to those envisioned here above this module main focus is to look at the differences between economic and social development. Here the emphasis would be on basing development on community initiatives rather than planned or market driven forms of development intervention. Within this key concepts to explore are: social capital, social networks, social inclusion, empowerment, poverty. The ‘practical’ side would include how to carry out poverty assessments, managing projects and programmes. (Prof. Ian Clegg July 25, 2008)




Global Development Data & Analysis (Prof. Fr. Houtart):

Prof. Fr. Houtart (CETRI) will cover the Global Situation data & analysis (Marxist Development Concepts approach) with a focus upon the CETRI current Latin America Marxist priviledge contacts with the local governments, academia and NGOs of Venezuela, Equator et de la Bolivia, possibly in view of organizing/coaching the visit of a Nepalese delegation,in situ.

Prof. Houtart emphasizes that CETRI can provide various input  proposals according to the needs and views expressed by the Nepalese partners. As a whole, the CETRI proposal is to give an analytical vision of the world problems today, such as:
1. Main aspects of present day globalization  (F. Houtart)
2. Europe ( to be choosen)
2. Latin America (F. Houtart, Guy Bajoit)
3. Africa (Singleton)
4. Arab world (B. Khader)
5. Asia (if necessary)
6. Globalization of resistances (F. Polet, Cetri)
As stated in the Module introduction above, further can be also given about Donors, INGOs, International organizations practices, as being envisioned with Prof. Ian Clegg.

(ref - Fr. Houtart: 3 June & 25 July 2008) 



Development Practices & Anthropology (Prof. M. Singleton) 

Prof. M. Singleton (LAAP) will cover specific areas under his  renowned expertise being linked with Africa/ex- Congo history of (failed/post-) development, such as: upstream a reflection on inter/multiculturality, imported donors & NGOs policies, while downstream, case studies of current development practices, in such specialized areas such as "ethnomedicine" and other subjects related to current development issues, including the relations which may be drawn with the Nepal ongoing scenario, thus - rather than a ' tour d'horizon ' with a political-economy data & analysis capacity building background, including the use of anthropology, economy and Marxist methodology concepts.



Hermeneutics & Consciousness Studies (Dr. B. Raven Lee):

The Consciousness Studies proposed here is an in-depth training in the knowledge and the experience of the different levels of consciousness, from the most dense physical level to the subtlest, and ways to access healing energy. Students will pursue a vigorous curriculum in the development of mind, awareness and energy-based model of consciousness, which include Jungian and quantum physics theories. Experiential participation is an essential component of this program, and each student will submit a heuristic inquiry regarding his/her own state of consciousness. Working with the shadow aspects of our psyche and with the Integrative Dream Practice, developed by Dr. Lee, will be focal points of training. Students are also taught specific meditation techniques related to the level of consciousness. Each is also encouraged to train in a mind/body/energy practice, such as yoga, tai chi or Qi Gong. (ref-: Dr. B. Raven Lee, July 21, 2008)


Dr. B. Raven Lee, the founder of Integrative Wisdom Path Institute, was born and raised in Hong Kong, educated in Britain and United States, then lived in Europe for 6 years. This cross-cultural background and fluency in three languages (Chinese: two dialects, English and German), can bring much to the CAIRN-NEPAL program. In addition to being a transpersonal psychologist, specializing in mind/body healing and trauma, Dr.Lee is also a certified diplomate in Clinical Hypnotherapy and Diplomate in Energy Psychology. Trained extensively in Interpersonal Neurobiology, she integrates science into her studies of spirituality and shamanism. 

For over two decades, Dr. Lee has been training in Buddhist meditation, and involved in the Bon-Tibetan Buddhist community. She is well versed in the subtle aspect of relating to Tibetan Lamas, and the political climate of the Asian countries. Presently, she is researching into the healing aspects of Tibetan meditation, and integrating into western approaches. She is also working on a book regarding the spiritual transformation of crisis. This is very much in alliance with the vision of the east-west collaboration with CAIRN and Nepal.

 For more information, please visit



Hermeneutics & Shamanic Studies (Dr. Juliana Switaj):

Dr. Juliana Switaj (Canada) will complete the expertises listed here above with the following curriculum options suggestions, depending upon the applicants personal project needs and interest. This will be particularly relevant in case of a request for some Certified UK/Canada Counselling or Clinical Practices Training Certificate:

1 - Applied Psychology Graduate Thesis research preparation and supervision (clinical, counselling, developmental and health development psychology).
2 - Training and supervision of Postgraduate students in the areas listed above, including: counselling, psychotherapy, meditation, shamanic practices and clinical assessment
3 - Thesis R&D academic supervision and/or training in Shamanic Journeying, Channeling, Embodiment, Meditation,
(ASC) Altered States of Consciousness and Healing work.
4 -  R&D and supervision in Psycho-neuro-immunology (states of consciousness, mind modulation of gene expression, imagery, self hypnosis, Psycho-synthesis, etc...).
(C) - Julianna Switaj



Diplomatic Tools:

Definitions and characteristics of diplomatic skills, negotiation, media communication, data gathering & analysis, humanitarian aid, development aid and economic measures, including the interplay among them; analysis of the main methods for each of these forms.


Human Rights & Global Justice:

Prof. Ian Clegg (CDS) would rather call this something like Human Rights, Justice and Development. Key content would include: the international system for promoting and protecting human rights, key international human rights instruments, conflicts between the rights of different individuals and groups, universal rights v cultural diversity, international distributive justice, basing development interventions on rights rather than needs ... (IC 25 Jul08)


Violence, Conflict and Development:

Causes and patterns of armed conflict, political and policy responses to insecurity and violence, humanitarian interventions in conflict settings, and post-war reconstruction and reconciliation.


Data Gathering & Analysis Skills:

While this is maybe a too enormous and controversial area, the particular failure of Western government and donors capacity in data gathering & analysis (in certain strategic areas of the recent history) is known to have led historically to major crisis. It is our view that the same major misrepresentations may appear while dealing with key issues of the Himalayan region.  Thus, while one can argue if we really want to train people in how to gather and analyze data? Or if  we rather want to review general methods course which looks at the fact that there are different methodologies and methods for doing ‘research’? (ie: quantitative and qualitative – which are based in different epistemologies, but are also more or less appropriate given the task and the conditions for collecting and analyzing data). The main issue being stressed here is that of the conflict of Paradigms and their Hermeneutics, including the review of current Hermeneutic tools and supporting philosophy being used in Nepal/Himalaya/Asia nowadays, while being despised or unknown by the so-called Western more conventional approaches. Therefore, the module substance here is directly aimed not to train in how to do and how to analyze, but on discovering a listing of such tools and  how to recognize what method is most appropriate when it approaches some of East/West current dilemnas... (RWL)


Hermeneutic Skills:

- Dr. B. Raven Lee (USA):

- Dr. W. R Leon (CAIRN):

- Dr. Julie Switaj (CANADA):

- various invited experts:

- ...

Holistic Psychology:

- Dr. B. Raven Lee (USA):

- Dr. W. R Leon (CAIRN):

- Dr. Julie Switaj (CANADA):

- various invited experts:

- ...

Prospective Anthropology:

- Prof. Fr. Houtart (CETRI):

- Prof. M. Singleton (LAAP):

- Prof. Ian Clegg (CDS):

- Prof. R. P. Gartoulla (NIHS):

- ...

Foundation Course(s) Language(s)

- Lect. HMJ (UWS):

- ...



Specialization Options (proposal)

Humanitarian Intervention Management:

- Prof. Fr. Houtart (CETRI):

- Prof. Ian CLegg (CDS):

- Prof. R.P. Gartoulla (NIHS):

- ...

International Organizations: review of the core element of INGOs and Donors, including Nepal UN , EC- and DFID agenda; the vital role of international organizations in development aid;  rationale for development cooperation; responsibilities of the different actors; effects and positive/negative impacts.

- ....

Strategies and Approaches: evolution of development “thinking” since its inception; (basic needs, sustainability, structural adjustments); assessments and evaluations, ensuing principles and lessons learnt.

- ...

Himalayan Current Affairs: as the basis of development policy; analysis of main goals and their relevance for prospective development; mechanisms of implementation and analysis of mid-term results, within new trends and analysis of different approaches; differences in perspectives between donor and recipient countries; reasons for failures and successes; main current problems and outlook.

- ...

The European Union: presentation of EC- Strategic Papers on Nepal, current development policy, procedures and problems, as one of the most important donor.

- ...

Logistics (Including Pilot Training Scheme):

- Armand Tenneguin

- ...

Thesis Research Skills:

- ...




Target groups
  • Practicing diplomats, civil servants, and others working in international relations who want to refresh or expand their knowledge upon Nepal / Tibet / Himalayan Current Affairs under the guidance of experienced practitioners and academics;
  • Post-graduate students in diplomacy or international relations wishing to study topics not offered through their university programmes or conventional diplomatic training, so as to gain some deeper insights upon the Hermeneutic Tools through interaction with practitioners and diplomats;
  • Post-graduate students or practitioners in other fields seeking an entry point into the Euro-Asian equation;
  • Journalists, staff of international and non-governmental organizations NGOs, translators, business people and others who interact with donors and wish to improve their understanding of negotiation-related topics.


Development of the Courses

The courses focus on different areas of international relations: Europe-Asia Nepal international relations, sustainable development, humanitarian issues, security and conflict management. The specific focal points of the courses will be adjusted to the particular needs of the target groups and translated into practical modules.

In these modules, substantial lectures are integrated with interactive skills training. This integration takes place in two ways: through seminars in effective reporting, international negotiation and intercultural communication skills on the one hand, and through several practical exercises related to international working areas on the other hand. Examples of this latter form are case studies on policy coordination and simulations on multilateral negotiation processes.

Besides these extensive courses, may offers short, specialized courses as well. These short courses focus on one area of expertise or specific skills. Finally, CAIRN has developed, throughout the years, substantive expertise on guiding non-Western participants.




The Writing on the Wall

The recent riots in Tibetan cities and the Olympic torch relay have generated as usual an immense global furor over China’s alleged human rights record in Tibet. The impression is given that China is using its police and army to violently enforce a brutal occupation on peaceful Tibetan aspirations for independence. No doubt there will be some more human rights abuses whenever riot police and troops are brought out in force. Including the actions of the Nepalese police and other concerned paramilitary forced to move forcibly upon the few monks, youth and others, who have gathered (at the media invitation) in front of the very gates of the Chinese Embassy. However, while this was happening on most the Western World TV screen, we, in Bauddha Stupa, had a feeling that it also may be as vitally important to look behind the media headlines to understand what truly was happening here and there...

Since a few weeks before the events took place, we saw emerging in the Bauddha Stupa area various people carrying new neatly printed plastic caps, plastic tee-shirts and other pamphlets of top quality text with the printed : For Free Tibet - Against the China Olympics - Stop Killing Tibetans -..., all of it being circulated amongst local the local Tibetans and the overall Bauddha community, as premises of something to happen and which was so well organized that it did not appeared as being any messy spontaneous emergence.

At the same time and in the same way, while the CPN Maoists were faring towards their now achieved big surprise electoral success, using all the tricks of the trade, and rendering most Embassies and INGOs Representations aghast. All in all, one could not avoid to reflect upon the past 10 years of a Nepal bitter conflict, from its first period of the rather Low Profile Intensity Conflict under late King Birendra upto its current erasing of the Monarchy itself and installment of a republic federal system based on ethnic, religious and regional divides. Were these factors in any way related? as, regionally they very much are part of the scenery...

And if yes?, what does it entails for the future...

Regionally, the Maoist victory in Nepal is also a sort of a boost to Maoists in India that through armed struggle have carved out large “liberated” zones in central and northern regions of the country. The situation has been of serious concern to the government of India as well as in other Western quarters, some (not to forget oldhands...) having been involved in the Himalayan/Tibet/Nepal equation since the 1950s Corean War and Khampa freedom fighters training in the Rocky Mountains and C-47/C-130 drop zones. The old time policy of maintaining alive some pockets of nuisance towards so-called Communist China is very much an issue benefiting Middle Class Bauddha...

However, from random daily encounters of a several hours gathering field data, most testimonies in situ (Bauddhanath) showed that the violence in Tibet did not start as result of a government crackdown on Buddhists and Tibetan dissidents seeking independence or greater autonomy from Beijing. Nor did it started in KTM from any desire of Nepalese overburden police to beat Tibetan/Nepalese monks... It started in China with Tibetan rioters attacking Hans and Huis in Tibet per se, and their shops and properties, while in KTM is was evidently being organized by some of the religious elite with all the artefacts and paraphernalia needed to put a good media show on the road for Western Media consumption. What was also rather substantial was that some of the concerned Tibetans involved in the happening, expressed at the same time their uneasiness and concern for the Dalai Lama’s repeating appeals to his followers to stop the increasing violence. But, by then, of course, the HHDL Office was overpass by the Tibetan Youth Congress (I) and Western Media saturation, so HHDL had to catch on a bit and follow suit, as best as he could do...

While Tibetans in Tibet/China (TAR) may have legitimate frustrations as a consequence of economic distortions and social alienation resulting from rapid capitalist development of the Chinese economy throughout China. Those now residing, second and third generation, in so-called exile in Nepal are to the contrary the most rich and Western support agencies most preciously preserved ethnic minority of all the valley. The local monasteries do own a rather substantial part of the economy, which used to be from the carpet factories (remember Child Labour?), buildings, private schools, trekking agencies, etc..., all, as such, seldom monitored, seldom accountable, seldom aware of other issues but that immediate and increasing Dharma interest. It is a world (ghetto paradigm) in itself...

Tibetans in Bauddha were profoundly divided over the above protests. If one went to seek their feelings beyond the culturally required seemingly coherent smiling community, many Tibetans, in exile or in transit, apparently do not regard China’s presence as an occupation or a threat, at all...

They rather consider that the 'Injis' (White People) own lack of awareness is the real threat. But then, since so many years, these Dharma 'Injis' (Westerners) un-ending financial and political support have enable so many Tibetans to eat their cake and keep it at the same time, that in the Tibetan mind the issue of 'Injis' lack awareness is an 'Injis' own problem...

While they revere the Dalai Lama as a religious figure, and pursue the remit given to them by supportive Western donors,  Tibetans generally opposed the same protests, fearing that it would hurt the Tibet Tourists business (as it did), close the Himalayan high range borders (as it did), render both Nepalese and Chinese border guards more nervous (as it did), put some in prison after serious beating (it did...) and that as a whole the initiative was more of a last time HHDL propaganda stunt than any serious long term solution to the Tibetan equation. Dalai Lama himself has been reportedly angered by Western insistence on Tibetan “independence.” In a press conference on March 20, 2008 in Dharamsala, Himachal Pradesh, India, HHDL the Dalai Lama expressed his frustration...


So why are Western Media, INGOs “human rights activists” and other academics promoting what HH Dalai Lama himself is not?

History leaves absolutely no doubt that the fragmentation of nation-states into feuding ethnic groups are so destabilizing, that one cannot see any prospect of advancing democracy, human rights, or social justice at the same time as it would be happening. But then, of course, some may emerge and benefit from the overall mess, a bit later...

Would in any event, such an exogenous Tibetan separatist movement, and seemingly synchronized federation of Nepal state into competing ethnic/cultural/religious groups, be nurtured and promoted by external influences, this with or without the knowledge of the local people first concerned (whom we think are simply not aware of more than what they live/suffer on daily basis), the ' Diplomatic and Communication Skills Curriculum Development ', which actors are hereby being approached, are going to meet much more interesting times... 


... to be continued




The real conflict in Nepal today lies in the different visions of the warring factions towards the future. To move out of the current crisis, Nepalese need to bear the vision and resolve to create a new history, to embark on a new culture. This will require a fundamental change in the behaviour of individuals, institutions and the State through restructuring of the state and establishment of an inclusive democracy.

But it also requires that Westerners get more awareness on a certain number of prevailing dramatic misrepresentations.

Since the fifties “development” has been the real legitimating ideology for any political configuration in Nepal, either democratic or partyless, and it is a daily rhetorical experience for everybody in the countryside. However, despite the
persistence of “development discourses” on any sector of rural activities, its impact on the majority of the population has been negligible so far, while the corruption of its more than 35,000 NGOs and government agencies is known to all.

Maoists have questioned the relevance of “soft” development activities (empowerment, awareness, information) if compared to the need for “hard” infrastructures (irrigation, dinking water supply, roads). In any case Maoists have stressed the role of the beneficiary communities in more direct delivery services,
trying to reduce the mediating role of international agencies, I/NGOs, private contractors and, in general, Kathmandu-oriented organisations. Within these organisations there is, in principle, an agreement on the identification of a semi-feudal
system and corruption as the main causes of popular support to the insurgency. However as far as practical devices to establish an internal transparent financial management are concerned, still few initiatives can be considered fully
effective. Many of the new attempts to establish public audits and project communications on expenditures have been conceived as reactive strategies and local communities pressures. The paradox of many Nepali organisations, but to a certain extent of international aid agencies as well, is that
the same circle of families which are leading development projects are the same people to whom the claims of “capturing” development funds are addressed. This
“sub-contractor culture”, hierarchic attitudes and lack of transparency in the management of GOs and NGOs should be addressed as a priority by Donors.

Another factor worth to be noticed speaking about the prevailing actors in the Nepali political arena is the increased influence of global powers in the internal affairs of the country. Leaving aside the fifty years of political, financial and technical
cooperation with international aid agencies, and the traditional close “observation” exercised by some of the powerful powers and other neighbours, such as : China and India, it should be
remarked how Nepal has become sensitive to the international conjunctures. indeed, any further fragmentation of Nepal or worsening of crisis leads to a major international issue.

Therefore, there are vital constraints, as well as real assets and opportunities in the regional development equation which the usual imported experts would readily consider as quite unconceivable under the prevailing conventional diplomatic, academic development theory or political paradigm.

It is in this historical context that the political transformation
in Nepal is unique; it is an evolution through a revolution, a compromise for change with continuity. Now this revolution may by itself bring the transmutation of its parameters.

There are in Nepal some Maoists that are practicing Buddhists, Christians that are Marxists, Tibetans that are Christians, Jesuits that are more Buddhists than local Buddhists per se, and Youth that are starving for change and openness against the background of feudal theocratic castes exploitation.



Bauddha Island of Peace

The recognition of a Boddhanath Stupa “Island of Peace” by local religious elites, HMG agencies, donors, NGOs and academic units, would be the expression of their commitments to preserve the peaceful integrity in the designated sacred site. Its custodians, members, participants and visitors would exemplify mutual respect and non-violent behaviour while on the site, and share their resources with expatriate intervenors and trainers for furthering peace, education and defining remedials, in inter-cultural/disciplinary intervention schemes.

It could provide a model of excellence, acting as a culturally appropriate reference of possibilities to put the Peace efforts and related Humanitarian Assistance into genuine practice in Nepal. The conditions required are simply those of mutual and self-respect that most thoughtful people and leaders would like to see in their own communities, throughout the world.

The online platform will be an occasion for participants to interact with the concerned community, NGOs and academics, on selected themes of discussion and analysis:

(A) Socio-Cultural Analysis of the Nature of Nepal's Crisis;
(B) Potential Roles of Religious and Civil Society for Peace;
(C) Humanitarian Assistance Training, for Work in Conflicts;
(D) Minimising Violence and Creation of Peace Zones;
(E) ICT- Database Information and Training Options.

Isn' t that enough to mandate this initiative...?




Entrance requirements for Postgraduate
Direct-entry programs

Applicants must present a personal research project and meet the General Entrance Requirements as specified for postgraduate academic exchange, PLUS the Specific Applied Psycho-Pedagogy, Human Resource Management (HRD) or Philosophy Training Requirements, as defined hereunder in the usual International Students eligibility in the UK/EU, and taking account of any further continuous education application to be made, in terms of any specified minimum level of performance and/or evidence of academic or professional suitability. Demonstration of proficiency in the use of the English language is also be required. Please note that although you must fulfill these requirements to be considered for admission, meeting the requirements does not guarantee admission. (Application & Conditions, please click here!)



Applicants must propose a Postgraduate Study / Research Project linked to one or several of the disciplines listed hereunder.

Minimum prerequisites for participation are a BA level, or 3 years minimum professional involvement in a related NGOs,  field-research activities. Applicants need to apply on basis of drafting a personal project proposal.

They may aim towards gaining either a Postgraduate Study Certificate (1year duration : 60 credits) and/or Diploma (3 years duration : 180 credits), as well as in certain cases to pursue their studies as International Students wishing to attend at a later stage some UK certified Postgraduate Foundation Courses abroad, or Professional Doctorate.

This scheme includes courses options which may be attended either in Nepal, India, Tibet TAR China and/or in the UK-/EU-, and Canada itself.

For this overview, an international student is defined as any student who wish to undertake a  Continuing Education Postgraduate Certificate (1 year) or Diploma (3years), under the EU, UK ECDL/ECTS and Canada High Education Guidelines. This information will also be of interest to target-site students who are applying for admission on the basis of academic credentials completed in Nepal, India or Tibet TAR China.


The key features of Cairn Continuous Education Postgraduate and Professional Doctorate Options are:

a- the titles are different from MSc or PhD – they directly refer to a particular field-expertise or profession, for which credits are being gained by applicants  who submit a personal project for a Professional Postgraduate or Doctorate in areas of their previous professional experience or renewed interest,
such as: EdD (education), DBA (business management) , DHA 
(health anthropology) , DEC (education counselling) and other 
open disciplines certification.

b- these are designed for experienced professionals who want to do a PhD part-time while remaining at work and who want to proceed through a personalized accumulation of credits certificates.

c- their aim is to make an original contribution to professional
knowledge and professional practice through a Thesis. 

d- they are studied in the work-place on an actual problem occurring in the local community, as well as allow short intensive Summer and Winter Campus organized in the EU-/UK- (min 3 weeks, max 3 months), and, of course, Cultural Immersion  Field-studies in Nepal/S-Asia.

e- they naturally involve action research and stepwise ethnographic investigation, from which (consensual diagnosis) a problem is identified, an intervention project designed is initiated, some possible solutions are devised and implemented. The joint-supervision allows effectiveness  to be monitored by experts in the field, so as to comply with EU academic requirements.

f- as there is a significant conceptual, methodological and know-how taught component in each individual project, material and references are brought online. This allows the development of knowledge in a most flexible and cost-effective manner in-situ, provides a focus-group cohort identity, allow the teaching of research methods, propose the provision 
of extended open menu of related subject training, allows an easy online sharing of experience and methodologies through forum, and encourage de visu (face-to-face) collective debate on common issues, experiences and relevance of each research topic through focused Seminars in the specific profession or training involved. 








Welcome to the beginning of a new Doctorate experience

 CAIRN  is particularly proud of its 20 years daily experience with Nepalese, Indian and Tibetan NGOs, its reputed academic collaboration in Asia, Europe USA and Canada, as well as of the quality of its Supervision Board, Research Consultants and integrated Cultural Immersion & online learning infrastructure. We have a vibrant Foundation Courses programme and a thriving suite of ECTS/ECDL Postgraduate Options in Health Anthropology, Comparative Study of Traditional Health Practices, Organisational Management and Counselling Psychology, including Tibetan Medicine Tsa-rLung Healing Energotherapy.

CAIRN Education Counselling Services (KTM Nepal, Canada, UK and Europe) offer an ideal starting place for candidates seeking pre-entry requirements for further training in both counselling and counselling psychology. Participants will learn about and practice advanced interpersonal and counselling skills; apply theory and techniques of counselling; gain an understanding of professional and ethical issues; and learn more about themselves. CAIRN also will give advice on immigration and study abroad.


Cultural Immersion

  CAIRN  Professional Doctorate School  is a cultural immersion e-learning and communication gateway for traditional healing practitioners experiential training, development studies academic research, and postgraduate and doctorate student exchange, based in KTM Nepal.

It offers selected online courses and field-research resources focused on the Himalayan region current development priorities, as well as specializes into curriculum development in selected research niches, through practical and theoretical knowledge in building : Applied Psychology to Counselling, HRD/HRM Capacity Building, Humanitarian Intervention, Clinical Anthropology, Prospective Health Anthropology and Tibetan Traditional Healing Psychotherapy.

All Options, from Postgraduate Foundation Courses up to Doctorate Thesis are certified as ECTS/ECDL personal research projects, defined within a  flexible menu. Cairn options are organized from highly selected academic and NGO resources, based in Nepal,  India, Tibet TAR China, Canada, USA, UK and EU.

Cairn Professional Doctorate is a personalized development research program only and is always offered one-on-one by appointment.








Prof. R.P. Gartoulla RECID/TU/IOM

Amchi Jampa Tibetan Med

   Tsa-rLung Ani Sherap Sangmo

Dr. Tsering MBBS PHC/TB

Amchi Tenzin Wangpo Tibetan Medicine Seminar



The key features of Cairn Postgraduate and Doctorate degrees are:

a- the titles are different from MSc or PhD – they directly refer to a particular field-expertise or profession, for which credits are being gained by applicants who submit a personal project for a Professional Postgraduate or Professional Doctorate Thesis in areas of their previous professional experience or renewed interest, such as: EdD (education), DBA (business management) , DHA (health anthropology) , DEC (education counselling) and other open disciplines certification.

b- these are designed for experienced professionals who want to do 
a PhD part-time while remaining at work and who want to proceed 
through a personalized accumulation of credits certificates.

c- their aim is to make an original contribution to professional
knowledge and professional practice through a Thesis. 

d- they are studied in the work-place on an actual problem occurring 
in the local community, as well as allow short intensive Summer and
Winter Campus organized in the UK, Canada or EU (min 3 weeks, max 3 months) and, of course, Cultural Immersion  Field-studies in Nepal/S-Asia.

e- they naturally involve action research and stepwise ethnographic
investigation, from which (consensual diagnosis) a problem is identified, 
an intervention project designed is initiated, some possible solutions are
devised and implemented. The joint-supervision allows effectiveness 
to be monitored by experts in the field, so as to comply with 
Nepal, EU, UK and Canada academic requirements.

f- as there is a significant conceptual, methodological and know-how
taught component in each individual project, material and references
are brought online. This allows the development of knowledge in a most
flexible and cost-effective manner in-situ, provides a focus-group cohort
identity, allow the teaching of research methods, propose the provision 
of extended open menu of related subject training, allows an easy online
sharing of experience and methodologies through forum, and encourage 
de visu (face-to-face) collective debate on common issues, experiences 
and relevance of each research topic through focused Seminars in
the specific profession or training involved. 

Cultural Immersion and Field-studies

CAIRN also promotes non-credits cultural immersion tours cum  experientials field-studies in clinical anthropology, ethno-medicine and counselling intervention research organized for EU scholars and professionals in Nepal, India and the Himalayan region. 
CAIRN(Nepal) Cultural Immersion and Field-studies for EU scholars  being interested in the Himalayan region, S-Asia and Nepal equation, may focus on current Euro-Asian geo-political issues, including the history, hermeneutics and representations prevailing upon local paradigm.
Finally, CAIRN(Nepal) also provides resources online and consultancy to local schools, NGOs and SMEs (Small and Medium Entreprises).

Interactive Coaching

CAIRN Email News

CAIRN Mobiles

CAIRN Podcast




 Professional Doctorate Thesis

This web page provides information on CAIRN Professional Doctorate in Health Anthropology, Tibetan Tsa-rLung Applied Psychology, Tibetan Ayurvedic Medicine, Counselling and Musico/Energotherapy, including Cairn Consortium, Units, cultural immersion options, duration, fees and application details.  Cairn Consortium EU-NGO legal structure for international academic partnership is also available upon request.


Combining teaching and research to the highest standard

The ‘taught' component of the Professional Doctorate will comprise a broad research training, taught at Masters level, to enable participants to employ different research design and implementation techniques in their chosen area of professional interest. There will be a further online ‘taught' component (assessed at the Doctoral-level), which reviews issues of professional relevance and interest to all high level practitioners. During this time preparatory work will commence for the research component (which will also be at the D-level). The research component will enable the participant to work individually, on a research topic (or cluster of related topics) of relevance to their professional role.


Flexible delivery for professionals

The programme is designed to support individual learning, driven by a learning needs analysis and personal development plan (PDP), with the learner identifying learning needs and satisfying these needs through a variety of different resources.

The programme will be delivered in a flexible way to reflect the learning needs of practising professionals who will be studying on a part time basis and who will be conducting a significant proportion of the work contributing to this degree in their work environment. Typically the ‘taught ' units will delivered by a combination of work-based learning (drawing on the latest available practice-based evidence), web based distance learning with online discussion and support, and research ‘conferences' either face to face at Bath or via an e-learning discussion board. The ‘ research and thesis ' element of the programme will be supervised by a panel of specialists comprising an academic member of staff of the University (to ensure that the work is of a sufficient standard to attain the award of PD) and one or a number of practice-based specialists will co-supervise this work.

In addition, previous learning experience and credits obtained from elsewhere will be recognised and accredited, in line with the University's current practice, as part of the admissions criteria for the programme.


Who can apply?

Applicants must propose a  Doctorate Thesis / Research Project :

Minimum prerequisites for participation are a BA level, or 3 years minimum 
professional involvement in a related NGOs or SMEs field of activities. 

Applicants need to apply on basis of drafting a personal project proposal,
and may gain, when necessary, a Postgraduate Study ECTS/ECDL Foundation Courses Certificate (1 year duration : 60 credits) and/or Diploma (3 years duration : 180 credits) Accreditation. They may also choose to attend ECTS credits certified Undergraduate level Short Courses.

This scheme includes courses options which may be attended either at the CAIRN/SXC in Nepal (first semester Cultural Immersion Preparatory modules) and/or further in the UK, EU or Canada as Foundation Courses.

Cairn Professional Doctorate is open to a wide range of  professionals, who have an active interest in practice based research and professional practice issues. International students looking for a taught doctorate experience in health may also apply.


How long does the Professional Doctorate take to complete?

Students will be able to complete the Professional Doctorate in three years integrated study. However, there is flexibility to enable professionals to fit their study around their busy working lives. Previous learning experience and credits gained from academic awards may be taken into account to reduce the length of time required to complete the Doctorate.





Cairn High Education Counselling

In order to facilitate the access in KTM / Nepal, in Canada and in Europe/UK to relevant Himalayan and Tibetan Vajrayana quality training resources for ECTS/ECDL credits Postgraduate and Doctorale Thesis Research certification, Cairn has organized the ongoing  Foundation Courses and Thesis Research Options  into an open menu curriculum based upon a stepwise culturally appropriate approach being the chronological succession of three (3) LEVELS of experiential research & learning , within five (5) specific AREAS  of experiential cultural immersion research activities.

More details are provided, with information and advice on any academic (and/or  non-academic)  concerns for preparing your file for registration and study visa for Postgraduate Research Foundation Courses organized in Canada, UK- Wales and the EU, either during face to face interviews in situ, or online. Please read the following pages and/or contact us for more details.

CAIRN Counselling Services provides advice and counselling on academic matters, including immigration advice and services, useful for Nepalese Mature Students (Postgraduate Personal Project Part-time Options) wishing to study in the EU, Canada or Wales UK. We support all students regardless of nationality, religion, gender, age, sexual preference or status. We operate CAIRN Education Counselling Services administration both by email and face-to-face Interviews appointments. We encourage all prospective students to kindly email us thereupon, at CAIRN EU-NGO HQ address:


Ethics & Methodology

Advice is offered without discrimination. Our services operate according to the EU, UK and Canada Code of Ethics for those advising international students. Our International Student Advisory Service meets the strict rules and standards of the Immigration Services of Canada, USA, the UK, Belgium and EU Official Visa Sections (Consulates or Embassies) in Nepal.

CAIRN operates as a confidential Education Counselling Service for professional and personal project oriented coaching to any prospective student or trainee, from the start of your project’s first Biodata interview up to its final implementation. This serves the general purpose of both clearing the academic accreditation file and provide necessary International Students advisory board screening information to applicants, including on the difficult issues such as visas, file administration and e-learning support options.

Cairn Counselling Services (EU-NGO) is a personalized projects academic exchange program, with cultural immersion options, e-learning and communication gateway for Asian and Western postgraduate researchers and professional continuous education trainees (mature students). It offers an open menu of options of selected online courses and field-research resources, focused on the one side on Asian LDCs development priorities. Cairn Academic Coaching  is offered one-on-one by appointment only. Cairn Euro-Asian Network increases opportunities for internships, field-research and online studies within an international dimension and selected international experts.


 Foundation Courses & Professional Doctorate  

CAIRN Foundation Courses degrees and Professional Doctorate Thesis are based on the Canada, UK and EU directives governing Professional Doctorate / Adult Continous Education / Open Learning credits, gained by participants presenting a Doctorate Thesis project, which conceptual, experiential and methodological requirements are achieved through a flexible accumulation of ECTS/ECDL credits in the fields of ICT- Arts&Therapy and Humanities Field-Studies.

Suitable experienced candidates can be admitted for a Professional Doctorate Thesis in subjects, such as:  International Education Exchange, Education Marketing and Promotion Strategy, Himalayan Region Prospectives, the use of e-learning Video Multimedia Database, Humanitarian Assistance, Nepal Post- development political issues, Field-studies in Philosophy, Traditional Health, Tibetan Medicine, Ethno-medicine, Clinical Anthropology and/or Shamanism.

Links to local NGOs, THWs, PHCs or Gompas involved in traditional health praxis, including CHOWs training, will be particularly encouraged.

Cairn organizes Professional  Doctorate Thesis (ECTS/ECDL) from current the opportunity provided by both the Canada Recommendations and the Directives for EU Continuous Education (Professional Training), with training content  based on applicants previous professional experience or renewed interest.

Cairn  International  Studies will improve the Asian and European students' ability to work in an increasingly globalized environment in the Western world and emerging economies of Asia. The goal is to prepare students and trainees for international tasks, promote interactive and communicative skills and encourage an open and receptive attitude towards cross-cultural awareness and understanding. Cairn Euro-Asian Network increases opportunities for internships, field-research and online studies within an international dimension and selected international experts. 


Cross-Cultural Immersion

CAIRN Cross-Cultural Awareness stresses that for a cross-cultural training to be effective as an enhancement for international development organization, it must deal with several complexities in the learning process, including that of providing flexible options for genuine Projects-based Cultural Immersion.


Professional Continuing Education

Options are offered in 2006-07 from partners based in Nepal, India, Canada, USA, South of France, Belgium, Italy and UK- Wales.

Certificates are designed primarily for continuing professional development and are typically offered in partnership with CAIRN selected faculties, INGOs, professional associations, or private sector organizations, in order to meet the challenge of Asian prospective relations with the West, as well as S-Asian community needs.

CAIRN wants to provide a warm and detailed welcome to all new prospective trainees and students. Our Network extends its current resources and activities from specific curricula based options branches being in UK (London and Swansea/Wales), Belgium (UCL/LLN), France (Nice), Italy, Canada, USA, Nepal, India and China. Cairn network facilities are substantial enough to present excellent project expertise answers to your needs, as well as are small enough to focus with insights to your personal project, within a friendly group and professional training community.








ADB Asian Development Bank
APF Armed Police Force
BOGs Basic Operating Guidelines
CCOMPOSA Coordination Committee of Maoist Parties & Organisations of South Asia
CIAA Commission for the Investigation of the Abuse of Authority
CNAS Centre for Nepal and Asian Studies
CPN (M) Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist)
CPN-UML Communist Party of Nepal (United Marxist-Leninist)
CRZ Compact Revolutionary Zone
DDC District Development Committee
DFAE Swiss Department for Foreign Affairs
DFID Department for International Development (British government)
EU European Union
GTZ German Technical Co-operation
HEI Graduate Institute of International Studies (Geneva)
HMGN His Majesty's Government of Nepal
ICG International Crisis Group
IDP Internally Displaced Person
IISDP Integrated Internal Security and Development Programme
IHDP Integrated Hill Development Project
IMF International Monetary Fund
JICA Japan International Co-operation Agency
MLM Marxist-Leninist-Mao-thought
MTEF Medium Term Expenditure Framework
NC Nepali Congress (Party)
NC (D) Nepali Congress (Democratic)
ND New Democracy
NDF Nepal Development Forum
NGO Non-Governmental Organisation
NRM Natural Resource Management
NHRC National Human Rights Commission
PMRD Popular Movement for the restoration of Democracy
PRSP Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper
PSIO Program for the Study of International Organisation(s)
PW People's War
RIM Revolutionary Internationalist Movement
RNA Royal Nepal Army
RPP Rashtriya Prajatantra Party
RRR Reconciliation, Reform and Reconstruction
SDC Swiss Agency for Development and Co-operation
SPA Seven-Party Alliance
TADA Terrorist & Disruptive Activities Ordinance (control & punishment) Act
TADO Terrorist and Disruptive Activities Ordinance
UF United Front (Maoist political wing)
ULF United Left Front
UN United Nations
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UPF United People’s Front
USAID United States Agency for International Development
VDC Village Development Committee
WB World Bank



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